Core 321/4541
EN 1.4541, ASTM TYPE 321 / UNS S32100

General characteristics

Core 321/4541 is a titanium-stabilized austenitic stainless steel with improved intergranular corrosion resistance for an extended temperature range. Core 321/4541 is an austenitic stainless steel that belongs to the standard CrNi stainless steel family. Core 321/4541 can be welded in all dimensions without becoming susceptible to intergranular corrosion.

The austenitic CrNi standard grades are the most widely used group of stainless steels. Their well-balanced material properties make them suitable for the fabrication of many products. Due to its titanium content, Core 321/4541 can be used at elevated temperatures. For high-temperature applications, the use of the optimized high-temperature Therma 321H/4878 is recommended.

Core 321/4541 is available in many product forms and dimensions, often also from many stainless steel stockholders. Polishing of Core 321/4541 is limited due to its titanium alloying.


Typical applications

  • Annealing covers
  • Stack liners
  • Automotive exhaust systems
  • Welded pressure vessels
  • Flanges and valves


Product forms, available sizes and finishes


Product typeFinishesThicknessWidth
Cold rolled coil and sheet2B, 2D, 2E, Bright annealed0,30-8,00≤ 2000
Hot rolled coil and plateHot rolled white, Mechanically descale1,36-12,70≤ 2000
Quarto plateHot rolled white5,00-130,00≤ 3200
Chemical composition


The typical chemical composition for this grade is given in the table below, together with composition limits given for the product according to different standards. The required standard will be fully met as specified on the order.

The chemical composition is given as % by mass.

TypicalCore 321/45410.0417.39.1Ti
ASTM A240/A240MTYPE 321 / UNS S32100<0.08<217.0-19.09.0-12.0<0.10Si:<0.75 P:<0.045 S:<0.030 Ti
EN 10088-21.4541<0.08<217.0-19.09.0-12.0Si:<1 P:<0.045 S:<0.015 Ti
Mechanical properties

The mechanical properties of the available products in soft annealed condition at room temperature are given in the table below. In addition to these values, several of the chromium-nickel grades is available in temper rolled condition with higher mechanical strength. Please contact your local Outokumpu sales company for more information.

Moderate strengths can be reached at elevated temperatures (~550 °C/1022 °F). Temperatures for excessive scaling are close to 850 °C/1562 °F. This grade, along with other austenitic corrosion-resistant steels, exhibits very high ductility and high elongation to fracture. It is not susceptible to brittle fracture in the solution annealed condition.

StandardGradeRp0.2Rp1.0RmElongationImpact strengthRockwellHBHV
Product type: Cold rolled coil and sheet
Typical (thickness 1 mm)Core 321/45412602856257081HRB
Product type: Hot rolled coil and sheet
Typical (thickness 4 mm)Core 321/454126529559070165
Product type: Hot rolled quarto plate
Typical (thickness 15 mm)Core 321/454125029057055

1)Elongation according to EN standard:
A80 for thickness below 3 mm.
A for thickness = 3 mm.
Elongation according to ASTM standard A2” or A50.

Corrosion resistance

Core 321/4541 has excellent corrosion resistance in solutions of many halogen-free organic and inorganic compounds over a wide temperature and concentration range. It can withstand many organic and sufficiently diluted mineral acids depending on the temperature of the solution. Core 321/4541 may suffer from uniform corrosion in strong mineral acids, for instance hot concentrated nitric acid, and hot strong alkaline solutions. More detailed information on the corrosion properties of Core 321/4541 can be found in Outokumpu’s Corrosion Tables published in the Outokumpu Corrosion Handbook and on

Due to its titanium content, the risk of sensitization to intergranular corrosion is strongly reduced compared to other austenitic CrNi standard grades with normal carbon content.

In aqueous solutions containing halegonides, e.g. chlorides or bromides, pitting and crevice corrosion may occur depending on halogenide concentration, temperature, pH-value, concentration of oxidizing compounds, or crevice geometry, if applicable. The presence of corrosion-inhibiting or accelerating compounds like transition metal ions or organic compounds may influence the corrosion behavior of Core 321/4541.

Core 321/4541 is prone to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking at temperatures over about 50 °C depending on the applied stress and the chloride concentration in the environment. Prior cold deformation of the structure under load increases the risk of stress corrosion cracking.

Due to its titanium stabilization against intergranular corrosion, Core 321/4541 can be used in the temperature range in which chromium carbides would precipitate in other austenitic CrNi standard grades. Its maximum service temperature in dry air is 850 °C. The presence of other corrosive compounds in the hot atmosphere, like water or sulfur compounds, may reduce the maximum service temperature significantly.

For more information on corrosion resistance, please refer to the Outokumpu Corrosion Handbook or contact the Outokumpu corrosion experts.

Pitting corrosion resistanceCrevice corrosion resistance

PRE Pitting Resistant Equivalent calculated using the formula: PRE = %Cr + 3.3 x %Mo + 16 x %N
CPT Corrosion Pitting Temperature as measured in the Avesta Cell (ASTM G 150), in a 1M NaCl solution (35,000 ppm or mg/l chloride ions).
CCT Critical Crevice Corrosion Temperature is the critical crevice corrosion temperature which is obtained by laboratory tests according to ASTM G 48 Method F



Physical properties



DensityModulus of elasticityThermal exp. at 100 °CThermal conductivityThermal capacityElectrical resistanceMagnetizable

*) Austenitic stainless steel grades may be magnetizable to a certain degree after cold deformation, e.g. in temper rolled condition.


Cold forming

These grades can be readily formed and fabricated by the full range of cold forming operations. They can be used in heading, drawing, and bending. Any cold forming operations will increase the strength and hardness of the material, and may leave it slightly magnetic. Work hardening is accentuated by the partial transformation of the austenite phase of the material to hard martensite.

Hot forming

Hot forming can be carried out in the 850–1150 °C temperature range. For maximum corrosion resistance, forgings should be annealed at 1050 °C and rapidly cooled in air or water after hot forming operations.


Austenitic Core 321/4541 has excellent weldability and is suitable for the full range of conventional welding methods (like MMA, MIG, MAG, TIG, SAW, LBW, or RSW), except gas welding. Core 321/4541 has about 50% higher thermal expansion and lower heat conductivity compared to carbon steels. This means that larger deformation and higher shrinkage stresses may result from welding.

In thin sections, autogenous welding may be used. To ensure that the weld metal properties (e.g. strength, corrosion resistance) are equivalent to those of the parent metal, matching or slightly over-alloyed fillers should preferably be used.

Suitable filler metals are: 19 9 Nb or 19 9 L

Generally, post-weld heat treatment is not required. In special cases where there is high risk of stress corrosion cracking or fatigue, stress relief treatment may be considered.

In order to fully restore the corrosion resistance of the weld seam, the weld discoloration should be removed by pickling and passivation.

More detailed information concerning welding procedures can be obtained from the Outokumpu Welding Handbook, available from our sales offices.

Standards & approvals

The most commonly used international product standards are given in the table below.


ASTM A240/A240MTYPE 321 / UNS S32100
EN 10088-21.4541